The Debian Project is an association of individuals who have made common cause to create a free operating system. This operating system that we have created is called Debian. An operating system is the set of basic programs and utilities that make your computer run. At the core of an operating system is the kernel. The kernel is the most fundamental program on the computer and does all the basic housekeeping and lets you start other programs. Debian systems currently use the Linux kernel or the FreeBSD kernel. Linux is a piece of software started by Linus Torvalds and supported by thousands of programmers worldwide. FreeBSD is an operating system including a kernel and other software. However, work is in progress to provide Debian for other kernels, primarily for the Hurd. The Hurd is a collection of servers that run on top of a microkernel (such as Mach) to implement different features. The Hurd is free software produced by the GNU project. A large part of the basic tools that fill out the operating system come from the GNU project; hence the names: GNU/Linux, GNU/kFreeBSD, and GNU/Hurd. These tools are also free. Of course, the thing that people want is application software: programs to help them get what they want to do done, from editing documents to running a business to playing games to writing more software. Debian comes with over 43000 packages (precompiled software that is bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine), a package manager (APT), and other utilities that make it possible to manage thousands of packages on thousands of computers as easily as installing a single application. All of it free. It's a bit like a tower. At the base is the kernel. On top of that are all the basic tools. Next is all the software that you run on the computer. At the top of the tower is Debian — carefully organizing and fitting everything so it all works together.
64-bitalso known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64. Is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set. It supports vastly larger amounts of virtual memory and physical memory than is possible on its 32-bit predecessors.32-bitOlder, but common architecture. Also known as i386 and x86.ARMFor small development boards, such as Raspberry and Orange Pi's.MIPSUsed in embedded systems such as residential gateways and routers.PowerPCThis architecture was well known for being used by Apple and has since become niche in personal computers.s390xSomething with IBM Z on Linux. Who knows..
CinnamonCinnamon is a desktop environment that is based on the GTK+ 3 toolkit. Cinnamon originally started as a fork of GNOME Shell, thus initially as a mere graphical shell of the GNOME software, but became its own desktop environment in Cinnamon 2.0. Cinnamon was developed by (and for) the Linux Mint distribution, with wider adoption spreading to other distributions over time.OpenboxOpenbox is a free, stacking window manager for the X Window System. Originally derived from Blackbox, Openbox has now been totally re-written in the C programming language and since version 3.0 is no longer based upon any code from Blackbox. Openbox is designed to be small and fast.MATEMATE is a desktop environment forked from the now-unmaintained code base of GNOME 2. The name was originally all capital letters to follow the nomenclature of other Free Software desktop environments like KDE and LXDE. The recursive backronym "MATE Advanced Traditional Environment" was subsequently adopted by most of the MATE community, again in the spirit of Free Software like GNU. The use of a new name, instead of GNOME, avoids conflicts with GNOME 3 components.XfceXfce is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris, and BSD. Xfce aims to be fast and lightweight, while still being visually appealing and easy to use. It consists of separately packaged parts that together provide all functions of the desktop environment, but can be selected in subsets to suit user needs and preference.KDEKDE Plasma 5 is the fifth and current generation of the desktop environment created by KDE primarily for Linux systems. KDE Plasma 5 is the successor of KDE Plasma 4 and was initially released on 15 July 2014. It includes a new default theme, known as "Breeze", as well as increased convergence across different devices. The graphical interface was fully migrated to QML, which uses OpenGL for hardware acceleration resulting in better performance and reduced power consumption.LXDELXDE (abbreviation for Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment) is a free desktop environment with comparatively low resource requirements. This makes it especially suitable for resource-constrained personal computers such as netbooks or system on a chip computers.LXQtLXQt is a bundle of software packages under development, with the aim of providing a complete desktop environment. It was formed from the merger of the LXDE and Razor-qt projects.GNOMEGNOME is a desktop environment that is composed entirely of free and open-source software. GNOME was originally an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment. Its target operating system is Linux, but it is also supported on most derivatives of BSD.i3i3 is a tiling window manager designed for X11, inspired by wmii, and written in C. It supports tiling, stacking, and tabbing layouts, which it handles dynamically. Configuration is achieved via plain text file and extending i3 is possible using its Unix domain socket and JSON based IPC interface from many programming languages.JWMJWM (Joe's Window Manager) is a lightweight stacking window manager for the X Window System written by Joe Wingbermuehle. JWM is written in C and uses only Xlib at a minimum. Configuration is by editing an XML file; no graphical configuration is necessary nor supplied.
DEBdeb is the format, as well as extension of the software package format for the Linux distribution Debian and its derivatives.
Half year 231
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